FALL OF AN EMPIRE
The Mughal emperors from Akbar to Shah Jahan ruled supremely and the period was one of peace and wealth in India; an era when arts and culture prospered, agriculture encouraged, religious tolerance promoted, rebellions were rare and roads were built. However, Aurangzeb the fifth and youngest son of Shah Jahan did not love music or poetry and therefore paid little interest to arts. Aurangzeb was also against the liberal lifestyle of his father and charged him of spending excessively on frivolous buildings.
in 1657, when Shah Jahan became critically sick, Aurangzeb started a two yearlong plan to gain control. By 1658, he had his brothers killed, stated himself to be the ruler and jailed his ill father. Straight away, he put a stop to the patronage given to the court artists and cancelled many of the religious tolerance policies that had been followed since the time Akbar was in control. By doing this, Aurangzeb wished to compel all Indians to follow Islam. Due to his actions, he emerged as a hero to the Muslims but to the Hindus, he became a tyrant.
Shah Jahan died eight years, after Aurangzeb acquired the throne. Recognizing, the great love that existed between his parents, Aurangzeb had Shah Jahan buried besides Mumtaz Mahal. As he stated that, his father had an enormous love for his mother; so let them rest close to each other. The only obvious unevenness in the whole Taj Mahal compound is the emperor's cenotaph, which is placed next to his queen.
Aurangzeb’s rigid governance and lessening treasury gave rise to rebellion and opposition because of which the empire started to break down. After his death at the age of 89 in 1707, Aurangzeb was buried in a small tomb beside a road.
From 1707 to 1748, more Mughals emperors occupied the throne than throughout the entire earlier history of the empire. in 1858, the 19th and last Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah II was defeated by the British, which put an end to the glorious Mughal Empire.